Permits and legislation

A reactor obviously can’t just be built: all kinds of laws, decisions, regulations, guidelines and plans are required before construction can start. The most decisive are:

  • The zoning plan so that the PALLAS-reactor can be properly spatially integrated.
  • The environmental permit – as part of the General Provisions Environmental Law Act (Wabo) – is for all location-related activities, such as construction, construction and use.
  • Nature Conservation Act for the protection of nature reserves (Natura 2000).
  • The Nuclear Energy Act (KEW) for the establishment and operation of the PALLAS-reactor. Important parts of the application for the KEW permit are the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the Safety Report (VR).
  • Water Act for all direct water discharges.

PALLAS has started preparations for the construction in 2022.

Zoning plan
In 2017, an important step was taken with the submission of a zoning plan to the municipality of Schagen to accommodate the PALLAS reactor in spatial planning. An EIA Plan is part of the zoning plan. This includes an inventory of the environmental effects of the PALLAS-reactor .The EIA is an inventory containing all information regarding the environmental impact of the reactor. It is primarily a tool for decision-making government bodies, to help them take the environment into account when deciding on the revision of the zoning plan.
The EIA plan is an extensive and technical document, read the summary here.

In 2019, the zoning plan was approved by the council of the municipality of Schagen. Four appeals were lodged against the zoning plan, but the Council of State ruled in March 2020 in favor of PALLAS, allowing the construction of the PALLAS-reactor. More information on the Council of State procedure can be found here.

Part of the design has been adapted to meet all security requirements, among other things. For this it was necessary to change the zoning plan in 2021. A SEA has also been drawn up for this zoning plan.

Environmental permit
In March 2022, PALLAS applied for the environmental permit for the construction of the PALLAS-reactor from the municipality of Schagen. The municipality of Schagen will assess whether the application to build fits within the zoning plan.

Nature Conservation Act
At the end of 2020, PALLAS submitted an application under the Nature Conservation Act to the Noord-Holland Noord environmental service. This law protects Dutch nature reserves and plant and animal species. This also includes the current nitrogen problem.
The Nature Conservation Permit Act became irrevocable at the beginning of 2022. The announcement can be viewed here.

Nuclear Energy Act
Together with the environmental permit, the Nuclear Energy Act permit forms the core of the authorization to erect (build) the PALLAS-reactor. The Nuclear Energy Act permit was applied for in 2022 and permitted in February 2023.

Water Act Permit
The Water Act permit is linked to the Nuclear Energy Act and regulates the intake of cooling water from the North Holland Canal and the discharge of cooling water into the North Sea. The Water Act permit was requested simultaneously with the Nuclear Energy Act permit from Rijkswaterstaat and permitted in February 2023.